22.1.3 Two-dimensional solid element library

**Products: **ABAQUS/Standard ABAQUS/Explicit ABAQUS/CAE

Plane strain elements

CPE3 | 3-node linear |

CPE3H^{(S)} | 3-node linear, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE4^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear |

CPE4H^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE4I^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear, incompatible modes |

CPE4IH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear, incompatible modes, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE4R | 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPE4RH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE6^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic |

CPE6H^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE6M | 6-node modified, with hourglass control |

CPE6MH^{(S)} | 6-node modified, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE8^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic |

CPE8H^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE8R^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration |

CPE8RH^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure |

The constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to pressure, and the linear pressure hybrid elements have three additional variables relating to pressure.

Element types CPE4I and CPE4IH have five additional variables relating to the incompatible modes.

Element types CPE6M and CPE6MH have two additional displacement variables.

Plane stress elements

CPS3 | 3-node linear |

CPS4^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear |

CPS4I^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear, incompatible modes |

CPS4R | 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPS6^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic |

CPS6M | 6-node modified, with hourglass control |

CPS8^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic |

CPS8R^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration |

Generalized plane strain elements

CPEG3^{(S)} | 3-node linear triangle |

CPEG3H^{(S)} | 3-node linear triangle, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG4^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral |

CPEG4H^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG4I^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, incompatible modes |

CPEG4IH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, incompatible modes, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPEG4R^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPEG4RH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG6^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic triangle |

CPEG6H^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic triangle, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPEG6M^{(S)} | 6-node modified, with hourglass control |

CPEG6MH^{(S)} | 6-node modified, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPEG8^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic quadrilateral |

CPEG8H^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic quadrilateral, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPEG8R^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic quadrilateral, reduced integration |

CPEG8RH^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic quadrilateral, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure |

The constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to pressure, and the linear pressure hybrid elements have three additional variables relating to pressure.

Element types CPEG4I and CPEG4IH have five additional variables relating to the incompatible modes.

Element types CPEG6M and CPEG6MH have two additional displacement variables.

Coupled temperature-displacement plane strain elements

CPE3T^{(E)} | 3-node linear displacement and temperature |

CPE4T^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature |

CPE4HT^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE4RT | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPE4RHT^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE6MT | 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control |

CPE6MHT^{(S)} | 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE8T^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature |

CPE8HT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE8RT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration |

CPE8RHT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure |

1, 2, 11 at corner nodes

1, 2 at midside nodes of second-order elements in ABAQUS/Standard

1, 2, 11 at midside nodes of modified displacement and temperature elements in ABAQUS/Standard

The constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to pressure, and the linear pressure hybrid elements have three additional variables relating to pressure.

Element types CPE6MT and CPE6MHT have two additional displacement variables and one additional temperature variable.

Coupled temperature-displacement plane stress elements

CPS3T^{(E)} | 3-node linear displacement and temperature |

CPS4T^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature |

CPS4RT | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPS6MT | 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control |

CPS8T^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature |

CPS8RT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration |

Coupled temperature-displacement generalized plane strain elements

CPEG3T^{(S)} | 3-node linear displacement and temperature |

CPEG3HT^{(S)} | 3-node linear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG4T^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature |

CPEG4HT^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG4RT^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPEG4RHT^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG6MT^{(S)} | 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control |

CPEG6MHT^{(S)} | 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPEG8T^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature |

CPEG8HT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPEG8RHT^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure |

1, 2, 11 at corner nodes

1, 2 at midside nodes of second-order elements

1, 2, 11 at midside nodes of modified displacement and temperature elements

3, 4, 5 at the reference node

Element types CPEG6MT and CPEG6MHT have two additional displacement variables and one additional temperature variable.

Diffusive heat transfer or mass diffusion elements

DC2D3^{(S)} | 3-node linear |

DC2D4^{(S)} | 4-node linear |

DC2D6^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic |

DC2D8^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic |

Coupled thermal-electrical elements

DC2D3E^{(S)} | 3-node linear |

DC2D4E^{(S)} | 4-node linear |

DC2D6E^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic |

DC2D8E^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic |

Pore pressure plane strain elements

CPE4P^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure |

CPE4PH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, hybrid with constant pressure stress |

CPE4RP^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, reduced integration with hourglass control |

CPE4RPH^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure |

CPE6MP^{(S)} | 6-node modified displacement and pore pressure, with hourglass control |

CPE6MPH^{(S)} | 6-node modified displacement and pore pressure, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure |

CPE8P^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure |

CPE8PH^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, hybrid with linear pressure stress |

CPE8RP^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, reduced integration |

CPE8RPH^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure stress |

1, 2, 8 at corner nodes

1, 2 at midside nodes for all elements except CPE6MP and CPE6MPH, which also have degree of freedom 8 active at midside nodes

The constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to the effective pressure stress, and the linear pressure hybrid elements have three additional variables relating to the effective pressure stress to permit fully incompressible material modeling.

Element types CPE6MP and CPE6MPH have two additional displacement variables and one additional pore pressure variable.

Acoustic elements

AC2D3 | 3-node linear |

AC2D4^{(S)} | 4-node bilinear |

AC2D4R^{(E)} | 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control |

AC2D6^{(S)} | 6-node quadratic |

AC2D8^{(S)} | 8-node biquadratic |

For all elements except generalized plane strain elements, you must provide the element thickness; by default, unit thickness is assumed.

For generalized plane strain elements, you must provide three values: the initial length of the axial material fiber through the reference node, the initial value of (in radians), and the initial value of (in radians). If you do not provide these values, ABAQUS assumes the default values of one unit as the initial length and zero for and . In addition, you must define the reference point for generalized plane strain elements.

Input File Usage: | Use the following option to define the element properties for all elements except generalized plane strain elements: |

*SOLID SECTION Use the following option to define the element properties for generalized plane strain elements: *SOLID SECTION, REF NODE= |

ABAQUS/CAE Usage: | Property module: |

Generalized plane strain sections must be assigned to regions of parts that have a reference point associated with them. To define the reference point: Part module: |

Distributed loads

Distributed loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Distributed loads,” Section 27.4.3.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** BX**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body force****Units:** FL^{–3}**Description: **Body force in global *X*-direction.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** BY**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body force****Units:** FL^{–3}**Description: **Body force in global *Y*-direction.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** BXNU**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body force****Units:** FL^{–3}**Description: **Nonuniform body force in global *X*-direction with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DLOAD` in ABAQUS/Standard and `VDLOAD` in ABAQUS/Explicit.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** BYNU**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body force****Units:** FL^{–3}**Description: **Nonuniform body force in global *Y*-direction with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DLOAD` in ABAQUS/Standard and `VDLOAD` in ABAQUS/Explicit.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** CENT^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–4}(ML^{–3}T^{–2})**Description: **Centrifugal load (magnitude is input as , where is the mass density per unit volume, is the angular velocity). Not available for pore pressure elements.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** CENTRIF^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Rotational body force****Units:** T^{–2}**Description: **Centrifugal load (magnitude is input as , where is the angular velocity).

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** CORIO^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–4}T (ML^{–3}T^{–1})**Description: **Coriolis force (magnitude is input as , where is the mass density per unit volume, is the angular velocity). Not available for pore pressure elements.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** GRAV**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Gravity****Units:** LT^{–2}**Description: **Gravity loading in a specified direction (magnitude is input as acceleration).

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** HP*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Hydrostatic pressure on face *n*, linear in global *Y*.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** P*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Pressure on face *n*.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** P*n*NU**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform pressure on face *n* with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DLOAD` in ABAQUS/Standard and `VDLOAD` in ABAQUS/Explicit.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** ROTA^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Rotational body force****Units:** T^{–2}**Description: **Rotary acceleration load (magnitude is input as , where is the rotary acceleration).

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** SBF^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–5}T^{2}**Description: **Stagnation body force in global *X*- and *Y*-directions.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** SP*n*^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–4}T^{2}**Description: **Stagnation pressure on face *n*.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** TRSHR*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Shear traction on face *n*.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** TRSHR*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform shear traction on face *n* with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine `UTRACLOAD`.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** TRVEC*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **General traction on face *n*.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** TRVEC*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform general traction on face *n* with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine `UTRACLOAD`.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** VBF^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–4}T**Description: **Viscous body force in global *X*- and *Y*-directions.

**Load ID (*DLOAD):** VP*n*^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–3}T**Description: **Viscous pressure on face *n*, applying a pressure proportional to the velocity normal to the face and opposing the motion.

Foundations

Foundations are available for ABAQUS/Standard elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Element foundations,” Section 2.2.2.

**Load ID (*FOUNDATION):** F*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Elastic foundation****Units:** FL^{–3}**Description: **Elastic foundation on face *n*.

Distributed heat fluxes

Distributed heat fluxes are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** BF**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body heat flux****Units:** JL^{–3}T^{–1}**Description: **Heat body flux per unit volume.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** BFNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body heat flux****Units:** JL^{–3}T^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform heat body flux per unit volume with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLUX`.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** S*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Heat surface flux per unit area into face *n*.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** S*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform heat surface flux per unit area into face *n* with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLUX`.

Film conditions

Film conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*FILM):** F*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface film condition****Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}^{–1}**Description: **Film coefficient and sink temperature (units of ) provided on face *n*.

**Load ID (*FILM):** F*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform film coefficient and sink temperature (units of ) provided on face *n* with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `FILM`.

Radiation types

Radiation conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*RADIATE):** R*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** Dimensionless**Description: **Emissivity and sink temperature (units of ) provided on face *n*.

Distributed flows

Distributed flows are available for all elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Pore fluid flow,” Section 27.4.6.

**Load ID (*FLOW/ *DFLOW):** Q*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the difference between surface pore pressures and a reference sink pore pressure on face *n* (units of FL^{–2}).

**Load ID (*FLOW/ *DFLOW):** Q*n*D^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Drainage-only seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the surface pore pressure on face *n* only when that pressure is positive.

**Load ID (*FLOW/ *DFLOW):** Q*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the difference between surface pore pressures and a reference sink pore pressure on face *n* (units of FL^{–2}) with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `FLOW`.

**Load ID (*FLOW/ *DFLOW):** S*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** LT^{–1}**Description: **Prescribed pore fluid effective velocity (outward from the face) on face *n*.

**Load ID (*FLOW/ *DFLOW):** S*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** LT^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform prescribed pore fluid effective velocity (outward from the face) on face *n* with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLOW`.

Distributed impedances

Distributed impedances are available for all elements with acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Acoustic loads,” Section 27.4.5.

**Load ID (*IMPEDANCE):** I*n***ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** None**Description: **Name of the impedance property that defines the impedance on face *n*.

Electric fluxes

Electric fluxes are available for piezoelectric elements. They are specified as described in “Piezoelectric analysis,” Section 6.6.3.

**Load ID (*DECHARGE):** EBF^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body charge****Units:** CL^{–3}**Description: **Body flux per unit volume.

**Load ID (*DECHARGE):** ES*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** CL^{–2}**Description: **Prescribed surface charge on face *n*.

Distributed electric current densities

Distributed electric current densities are available for coupled thermal-electrical elements. They are specified as described in “Coupled thermal-electrical analysis,” Section 6.6.2.

**Load ID (*DECURRENT):** CBF^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body current****Units:** CL^{–3}T^{–1}**Description: **Volumetric current source density.

**Load ID (*DECURRENT):** CS*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** CL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Current density on face *n*.

Distributed concentration fluxes

Distributed concentration fluxes are available for mass diffusion elements. They are specified as described in “Mass diffusion analysis,” Section 6.8.1.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** BF^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body concentration flux****Units:** PT^{–1}**Description: **Concentration body flux per unit volume.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** BFNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Body concentration flux****Units:** PT^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform concentration body flux per unit volume with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLUX`.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** S*n*^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface concentration flux****Units:** PLT^{–1}**Description: **Concentration surface flux per unit area into face *n*.

**Load ID (*DFLUX):** S*n*NU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface concentration flux****Units:** PLT^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform concentration surface flux per unit area into face *n* with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLUX`.

Distributed loads

Surface-based distributed loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Distributed loads,” Section 27.4.3.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** HP^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Hydrostatic pressure on the element surface, linear in global *Y*.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** P**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Pressure on the element surface.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** PNU**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform pressure on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DLOAD` in ABAQUS/Standard and `VDLOAD` in ABAQUS/Explicit.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** SP^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–4}T^{2}**Description: **Stagnation pressure on the element surface.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** TRSHR**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface traction****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Shear traction on the element surface.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** TRSHRNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform shear traction on the element surface with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine `UTRACLOAD`.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** TRVEC**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface traction****Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **General traction on the element surface.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** TRVECNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** FL^{–2}**Description: **Nonuniform general traction on the element surface with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine `UTRACLOAD`.

**Load ID (*DSLOAD):** VP^{(E)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Pressure****Units:** FL^{–3}T**Description: **Viscous pressure on the element surface. The viscous pressure is proportional to the velocity normal to the element surface and opposing the motion.

Distributed heat fluxes

Surface-based heat fluxes are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*DSFLUX):** S**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface heat flux****Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Heat surface flux per unit area into the element surface.

**Load ID (*DSFLUX):** SNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface heat flux****Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform heat surface flux per unit area applied on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLUX`.

Film conditions

Surface-based film conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*SFILM):** F**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface film condition****Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}^{–1}**Description: **Film coefficient and sink temperature (units of ) provided on the element surface.

**Load ID (*SFILM):** FNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface film condition****Units:** JL^{–2}T^{–1}^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform film coefficient and sink temperature (units of ) provided on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `FILM`.

Radiation types

Surface-based radiation conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Thermal loads,” Section 27.4.4.

**Load ID (*SRADIATE):** R**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface radiation to ambient****Units:** Dimensionless**Description: **Emissivity and sink temperature (units of ) provided on the element surface.

Distributed flows

Surface-based flows are available for all elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Pore fluid flow,” Section 27.4.6.

**Load ID (*SFLOW/ *DSFLOW):** Q^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the difference between surface pore pressures and a reference sink pore pressure on the element surface (units of FL^{–2}).

**Load ID (*SFLOW/ *DSFLOW):** QD^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Drainage-only seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the surface pore pressure on the element surface only when that pressure is positive.

**Load ID (*SFLOW/ *DSFLOW):** QNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** Not supported**Units:** F^{–1}L^{3}T^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform seepage (outward normal flow) proportional to the difference between surface pore pressures and a reference sink pore pressure on the element surface (units of FL^{–2}) with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `FLOW`.

**Load ID (*SFLOW/ *DSFLOW):** S^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface pore fluid****Units:** LT^{–1}**Description: **Prescribed pore fluid effective velocity outward from the element surface.

**Load ID (*SFLOW/ *DSFLOW):** SNU^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface pore fluid****Units:** LT^{–1}**Description: **Nonuniform prescribed pore fluid effective velocity (outward from the surface) on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine `DFLOW`.

Distributed impedances

Surface-based impedances are available for all elements with acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Acoustic loads,” Section 27.4.5.

Incident wave loading

Surface-based incident wave loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom or acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in “Acoustic loads,” Section 27.4.5. If the incident wave field includes a reflection off a plane outside the boundaries of the mesh, this effect can be included.

Electric fluxes

Surface-based electric fluxes are available for piezoelectric elements. They are specified as described in “Piezoelectric analysis,” Section 6.6.3.

**Load ID (*DSECHARGE):** ES^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface charge****Units:** CL^{–2}**Description: **Prescribed surface charge on the element surface.

Distributed electric current densities

Surface-based electric current densities are available for coupled thermal-electrical elements. They are specified as described in “Coupled thermal-electrical analysis,” Section 6.6.2.

**Load ID (*DSECURRENT):** CS^{(S)}**ABAQUS/CAE Load/Interaction:** **Surface current****Units:** CL^{–2}T^{–1}**Description: **Current density applied on the element surface.

Output is in global directions unless a local coordinate system is assigned to the element through either the section definition (“Orientations,” Section 2.2.5) or an element property assignment (“Assigning element properties on an element-by-element basis,” Section 21.1.5), in which case output is in the local coordinate system (which rotates with the motion in large-displacement analysis). See “State storage,” Section 1.5.4 of the ABAQUS Theory Manual, for details.

Stress, strain, and other tensor components

Stress and other tensors (including strain tensors) are available for elements with displacement degrees of freedom. All tensors have the same components. For example, the stress components are as follows:

S11 | , direct stress. |

S22 | , direct stress. |

S33 | , direct stress (not available for plane stress elements). |

S12 | , shear stress. |

Heat flux components

Available for elements with temperature degrees of freedom.

HFL1 | Heat flux in the |

HFL2 | Heat flux in the |

Pore fluid velocity components

Available for elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom.

FLVEL1 | Pore fluid effective velocity in the |

FLVEL2 | Pore fluid effective velocity in the |

Mass concentration flux components

Available for elements with normalized concentration degrees of freedom.

MFL1 | Concentration flux in the |

MFL2 | Concentration flux in the |

Electrical potential gradient

Available for elements with electrical potential degrees of freedom.

EPG1 | Electrical potential gradient in the |

EPG2 | Electrical potential gradient in the |

For generalized plane strain elements, the reference node associated with each element (where the generalized plane strain degrees of freedom are stored) is not shown. The reference node should be the same for all elements in any given connected region so that the bounding planes are the same for that region. Different regions may have different reference nodes. The number of the reference node is not incremented when the elements are generated incrementally (see “Creating elements from existing elements by generating them incrementally” in “Element definition,” Section 2.2.1).

For heat transfer applications a different integration scheme is used for triangular elements, as described in “Triangular, tetrahedral, and wedge elements,” Section 3.2.6 of the ABAQUS Theory Manual.