22.3.2 Warping element library

**Product: **ABAQUS/Standard

WARP2D3 | 3-node linear two-dimensional warping element |

WARP2D4 | 4-node bilinear two-dimensional warping element |

No output is available for these element types. The two-dimensional warping elements are used to calculate the out-of-plane warping function for beams using a meshed cross-section. This warping function can be viewed in the Visualization module of ABAQUS/CAE. The derivatives of the warping function are used to calculate the shear strain and stress at the integration points of the elements due to torsion.