Difference between revisions of "Tools for Performance Evaluation in Linux"

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Learning how to evaluate the performance of your operating system is critical to scaling up your web services to a large number of users.
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Learning how to evaluate the performance of your operating system is critical to scaling up your web services to a large number of users. This article will discuss a few tools that will help you with evaluating the performance of your Linux server and web applications.
 
 
 
 
This article will discuss a few tools that will help you with evaluating the performance of your Linux server and one for evaluating your webserver
 
  
 
== Linux Command Line Tools ==
 
== Linux Command Line Tools ==
 
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The Linux command line offers an excellent set of tools to help you monitor the performance of your server.  When evaluating the performance of your web application you need to understand the impact your application has on the server you've deployed it on.  When trying to understand where a potential bottleneck exists for your application, these tools will help you quickly gain insight into the problem.  The types of questions you want to ask are what resources are limiting the performance of my application. Is my CPU always busy?  Is the disk not fast enough to read and write files?  Is the network too congested to send data? All of these questions and more can be answered with Linux system tools.  Below I provide examples of two of my favorite tools to start to dissect performance issues in Linux. 
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=== top ===
 
=== top ===
 
The Linux command ''top'' provides real-time view of the running system. The command is helpful for displaying high utilizing resources.
 
The Linux command ''top'' provides real-time view of the running system. The command is helpful for displaying high utilizing resources.
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''vmstat'' (virtual memory statistics) is a monitoring utility, which also provides information about block IO and CPU activity in addition to memory.
 
''vmstat'' (virtual memory statistics) is a monitoring utility, which also provides information about block IO and CPU activity in addition to memory.
  
vmstat provides a number of values and will typically be called using two numerical parameters.
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vmstat provides a number of values and will typically be called using two parameters.
 
Example:  
 
Example:  
 
<source lang="bash">
 
<source lang="bash">
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* 5 -> the values will be reported five times and then the program will stop
 
* 5 -> the values will be reported five times and then the program will stop
  
The first line of the report will contain the average values since the last time the computer was rebooted. All other lines in the report will represent their respective current values. Vmstat does not need any special user rights. It can run as a normal user.
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The first line of the report will contain the average values since the last time the computer was rebooted. All other lines in the report will represent their respective current values.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
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** st: Time stolen from a virtual machine.  
 
** st: Time stolen from a virtual machine.  
  
== Apache Benchmark Tool ==
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=== Additional System Tools ===
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A very comprehensive list of tools can be found here [http://www.brendangregg.com/linuxperf.html].  Depending on which part of the Linux OS you want to explore, an appropriate tool exists.
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== Application Benchmarks ==
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Below is a list of common application benchmark tools. 
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=== Apache Benchmark Tool ===
  
 
The Apache Benchmark ab [https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/programs/ab.html] provides a convenient way to stress test your web server. The tool is included with the default installation of Apache.
 
The Apache Benchmark ab [https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/programs/ab.html] provides a convenient way to stress test your web server. The tool is included with the default installation of Apache.
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</pre>
 
</pre>
  
== Performance Evaluation Resources ==
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== Additional Performance Evaluation Resources ==
[http://www.brendangregg.com/linuxperf.html Comprehensive list of tools]
 
  
 
[http://alvinalexander.com/linux/unix-linux-top-command-cpu-memory Linux Top Command]
 
[http://alvinalexander.com/linux/unix-linux-top-command-cpu-memory Linux Top Command]

Revision as of 12:22, 8 November 2015

Learning how to evaluate the performance of your operating system is critical to scaling up your web services to a large number of users. This article will discuss a few tools that will help you with evaluating the performance of your Linux server and web applications.

Linux Command Line Tools

The Linux command line offers an excellent set of tools to help you monitor the performance of your server. When evaluating the performance of your web application you need to understand the impact your application has on the server you've deployed it on. When trying to understand where a potential bottleneck exists for your application, these tools will help you quickly gain insight into the problem. The types of questions you want to ask are what resources are limiting the performance of my application. Is my CPU always busy? Is the disk not fast enough to read and write files? Is the network too congested to send data? All of these questions and more can be answered with Linux system tools. Below I provide examples of two of my favorite tools to start to dissect performance issues in Linux.

top

The Linux command top provides real-time view of the running system. The command is helpful for displaying high utilizing resources. To run the command simply type the name:

$ top

The output of the screen will look something like this:


top - 18:38:09 up  2:13,  3 users,  load average: 0.57, 0.13, 0.04
Tasks:  83 total,   2 running,  81 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 49.7%us, 39.3%sy,  0.0%ni,  0.0%id,  0.0%wa,  0.0%hi, 11.0%si,  0.0%st
Mem:   1019452k total,   186040k used,   833412k free,    12000k buffers
Swap:        0k total,        0k used,        0k free,    99032k cached

  PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND           
 3854 ec2-user  20   0 88776 8012 4956 R 21.0  0.8   0:03.69 ab                 
 3871 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S 14.3  1.1   0:00.55 httpd              
 3868 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S 14.0  1.1   0:00.55 httpd              
 3869 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S 14.0  1.1   0:00.55 httpd              
 3870 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S 14.0  1.1   0:00.55 httpd              
 3873 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S  5.7  1.1   0:00.17 httpd              
 3874 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S  0.7  1.1   0:00.02 httpd              
 3875 apache    20   0  334m  10m 6252 S  0.7  1.1   0:00.02 httpd              
    1 root      20   0 19612 2416 2092 S  0.0  0.2   0:00.78 init               
    2 root      20   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 kthreadd           
    3 root      20   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.03 ksoftirqd/0        
    5 root       0 -20     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 kworker/0:0H       
    6 root      20   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 kworker/u30:0      
    7 root      20   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.07 rcu_sched          
    8 root      20   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 rcu_bh             
    9 root      RT   0     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 migration/0        
   10 root       0 -20     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 khelper            

Explanation of Columns:

  • PID – process ID
  • USER – username for the owner of each process
  • PR – process priority (RT means a Real Time priority class – used for system processes)
  • NI – priority set by nice utility
  • VIRT – the amount of virtual memory used by a process: code, data and shared libraries plus pages that have been swapped out
  • RES – the resident part of a process – how much of it resides in the physical memory (non-swapped memory)
  • SHR – shows you the size of potentially shared memory segments for a process
  • S – the current state of each process
  •  %CPU – percentage of the time shares CPU spends running a particular process
  •  %MEM – percentage of the physical memory of your system which is used by each process
  •  %TIME+ – total time CPUs spent running each process
  • COMMAND – a command used to initiate each process.


vmstat

vmstat (virtual memory statistics) is a monitoring utility, which also provides information about block IO and CPU activity in addition to memory.

vmstat provides a number of values and will typically be called using two parameters. Example:

$ vmstat 1 5
  • 1 -> the values will be re-measured and reported every second
  • 5 -> the values will be reported five times and then the program will stop

The first line of the report will contain the average values since the last time the computer was rebooted. All other lines in the report will represent their respective current values.

[ec2-user@ip-172-30-0-240 ~]$ vmstat 1 5
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu-----
 r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa st
 1  0      0 1869728  11612 112776    0    0    16     2    8   19  0  0 99  0  0	
 0  0      0 1869756  11612 112776    0    0     0     0   13   22  1  0 99  0  0	
 0  0      0 1869752  11612 112776    0    0     0     0    9   11  0  0 100  0  0	
 0  0      0 1869748  11612 112776    0    0     0     0   12   18  0  0 100  0  0	
 1  0      0 1869748  11612 112776    0    0     0     0    9    8  0  0 100  0  0	
[ec2-user@ip-172-30-0-240 ~]$ 

Explanation of Individual Values: (Source man vmstat)

  • Procs
    • r: The number of processes waiting for run time.
    • b: The number of processes in uninterruptible sleep.
  • Memory
    • swpd: the amount of virtual memory used.
    • free: the amount of idle memory.
    • buff: the amount of memory used as buffers.
    • cache: the amount of memory used as cache.
    • inact: the amount of inactive memory. (-a option)
    • active: the amount of active memory. (-a option)
  • Swap
    • si: Amount of memory swapped in from disk (/s).
    • so: Amount of memory swapped to disk (/s).
  • IO
    • bi: Blocks received from a block device (blocks/s).
    • bo: Blocks sent to a block device (blocks/s).
  • System
    • in: The number of interrupts per second, including the clock.
    • cs: The number of context switches per second.
  • CPU
    • These are percentages of total CPU time.
    • us: Time spent running non-kernel code. (user time, including nice time)
    • sy: Time spent running kernel code. (system time)
    • id: Time spent idle. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, this includes IO-wait time.
    • wa: Time spent waiting for IO. Prior to Linux 2.5.41, included in idle.
    • st: Time stolen from a virtual machine.

Additional System Tools

A very comprehensive list of tools can be found here [1]. Depending on which part of the Linux OS you want to explore, an appropriate tool exists.


Application Benchmarks

Below is a list of common application benchmark tools.

Apache Benchmark Tool

The Apache Benchmark ab [2] provides a convenient way to stress test your web server. The tool is included with the default installation of Apache.

An example of using ab to send 1000 requests, 10 at a time to the URL http://example.com/ is shown below:

$ ab -c 10 –n 1000 http://example.com/

The output of the tool will look similar to this:


Document Path:          /
Document Length:        25951 bytes

Concurrency Level:      10
Time taken for tests:   11.072 seconds
Complete requests:      1000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      26253056 bytes
HTML transferred:       25995542 bytes
Requests per second:    90.32 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       110.722 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       11.072 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          2315.51 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:       32   33   0.4     33      39
Processing:    67   77  22.5     68     141
Waiting:       34   35   0.9     35      44
Total:        100  110  22.4    101     174

Additional Performance Evaluation Resources

Linux Top Command

Linux Performance Measurements using vmstat

CPU Steal Time