Difference between revisions of "Socket.IO"

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m (A First Socket.IO Application: Chat Server and Client)
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=== The Chat Server ===
 
=== The Chat Server ===
  
You can make a file called chat.js with the following code:
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You can make a file called ''chat-server.js'' with the following code:
  
 
<source lang="javascript">
 
<source lang="javascript">
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=== The Chat Client ===
 
=== The Chat Client ===
  
Here is a front-end client that could work with our server, in `chat.html`:
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Here is a front-end client that could work with our server, in ''chat.html'':
  
 
<source lang="html4strict">
 
<source lang="html4strict">
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<script src="//cdn.sencha.io/ext-4.1.1-gpl/ext-all-dev.js"></script>
 
<script src="//cdn.sencha.io/ext-4.1.1-gpl/ext-all-dev.js"></script>
  
<!-- Write our custom code -->
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<!-- Include our custom code -->
<script>
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<script src="chat-client.js"></script>
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 +
</head>
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<body>
 +
<ul id="messages">
 +
</ul>
 +
 
 +
<p>
 +
<textarea id="comment"></textarea>
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<button id="send">Send Comment</button>
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</p>
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</body>
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</html>
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</source>
 +
 
 +
And here is ''chat-client.js'':
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 +
<source lang="javascript">
 
Ext.DomHelper.useDom = true; // prevent XSS
 
Ext.DomHelper.useDom = true; // prevent XSS
  
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});
 
});
 
});
 
});
</script>
 
</head>
 
<body>
 
<ul id="messages">
 
</ul>
 
 
<p>
 
<textarea id="comment"></textarea>
 
<button id="send">Send Comment</button>
 
</p>
 
</body>
 
</html>
 
 
</source>
 
</source>
  

Revision as of 21:05, 10 April 2013

AJAX is useful when one-way communication is satisfactory for your web application. However, what happens when you need two-way communication, like a chat client or multiplayer game? AJAX isn't the tool for the job. This is where Socket.IO comes in.

Built to work natively with Node.JS, Socket.IO enables asynchronous, two-way communication between the server and the client. This means that the server can send messages to the client without the client having to ask first, as is the case with AJAX. As you learn Socket.IO, Non-Blocking I/O will become your best friend!

Installing Socket.IO

Before you install Socket.IO, you need to install Node.JS and NPM, which is often installed automatically when you install Node.JS.

Once those are ready, installing Socket.IO is as simple as a one-liner NPM command:

$ sudo npm install -g socket.io

Note: The -g means that Socket.IO will be installed "globally" on your instance, so all Node.JS projects will be able to use it. Had you not used the -g option, Socket.IO would install in a new local directory called node_modules and would be accessible to only the project in the current working directory.

Messaging

Socket.IO works by having clients send messages to the server and the server send messages to clients. For example, consider the code:

// Computer A:
socket.emit("info", {
	"hello": "world"
});

// Computer B:
socket.on("info", function (data) {
	console.log(data.hello);
});

Computer A could be either the client or the server, and Computer B would be the other. When socket.emit(name, data) is called on either end, the callback function in socket.on that listens for the message named name is called with the data from socket.emit.

A First Socket.IO Application: Chat Server and Client

Building a chat client is surprising simple using Socket.IO and Node.JS, and it gives great insight into the workings of Socket.IO. Take the time to understand how this example works, and ask questions; if you understand this, the group portion will be easy!

The Chat Server

You can make a file called chat-server.js with the following code:

// Require the packages we will use:
var http = require("http"),
	io = require("socket.io"),
	fs = require("fs");

// Listen for HTTP connections:
var app = http.createServer(function(req, resp){
	// This callback runs when a new connection is made to our HTTP server.
	fs.readFile("chat.html", function(err, data){
		// This callback runs when the chat.html file has been read from the filesystem.
		if(err) return resp.writeHead(500);
		resp.writeHead(200);
		resp.end(data);
	});
});
app.listen(3456);

// Do the Socket.IO magic:
io.listen(app).sockets.on("connection", function(socket){
	// This callback runs when a new Socket.IO connection is established.
	socket.on("message", function(content){
		// This callback runs when the client sends us a "message" event
		console.log("message: "+content); // log it to the Node.JS output
		socket.broadcast.emit("someonesaid", content); // broadcast the message to other users
	});
});

The above code makes a simple HTTP server that responds to all connections with the contents of the file "chat.html", which we will make in the next step. We tell Socket.IO to listen for "message" events, and when it hears one, it should emit a new event called "someone said" back to the connected clients.

The Chat Client

Here is a front-end client that could work with our server, in chat.html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Chat Client</title>

<!-- Include the Socket.IO and Ext libraries -->
<script src="/socket.io/socket.io.js"></script>
<script src="//cdn.sencha.io/ext-4.1.1-gpl/ext-all-dev.js"></script>

<!-- Include our custom code -->
<script src="chat-client.js"></script>

</head>
<body>
<ul id="messages">
</ul>

<p>
	<textarea id="comment"></textarea>
	<button id="send">Send Comment</button>
</p>
</body>
</html>

And here is chat-client.js:

Ext.DomHelper.useDom = true; // prevent XSS

var socket = io.connect("http://localhost");
socket.on("someonesaid", function(content){
	// This callback runs when the server sends us a "someonesaid" event
	Ext.fly("messages").createChild({
		tag: "li",
		children: [content]
	});
});
Ext.onReady(function(){
	Ext.fly("send").on("click", function(){
		// When the "send" button is clicked, emit a "message" event to the server containing a chat message
		socket.emit("message", Ext.fly("comment").getValue());
	});
});

Note: This example passes strings as the event data, but you can pass any JavaScript datatype, including object literals.

To see this in action, save these two files in the same directory, cd over to the directory, and start the server:

$ node chat.js

Fire up your favorite browser and navigate to http://localhost:3456/. Open the page in two windows. Violà: you have your (very basic) chat client!

Resources

The Socket.IO web site has concise examples that tell you pretty much all you need to know in order to build a functional Socket.IO web application.