Two types of analyses involving electrical potential as a degree of freedom are available in ABAQUS/Standard:
Coupled thermal-electrical analysis: The electrical potential and temperature fields can be solved simultaneously by performing a coupled thermal-electrical analysis (Coupled thermal-electrical analysis, Section 6.6.2). In these problems the energy dissipated by an electrical current flowing through a conductor is converted into thermal energy, and the electrical conductivity can, in turn, be temperature dependent. Thermal loads can be applied, but deformation of the structure is not considered. Coupled thermal-electrical problems can be linear or nonlinear.
Piezoelectric analysis: In a piezoelectric material an electric potential gradient causes straining, while stress causes an electric potential in the material (Piezoelectric analysis, Section 6.6.3). This coupling is provided by defining the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of a material and can be used in natural frequency extraction, transient dynamic analysis, both linear and nonlinear static stress analysis, and steady-state dynamics analysis procedures. In all procedures, including nonlinear statics and dynamics, the piezoelectric behavior is always assumed to be linear.